Drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol
Liu ZM, Zhou WH, Lian Z,
Mu Y, Ren ZH, Cao JQ, Cai ZJ
National Institute on Drug Dependence,
Beijing, China.
Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 1999 Jan;20(1):52-4


AIM: To assess the drug dependence and abuse liability of tramadol. METHODS: Subjects of opiate addicts with history of tramadol abuse were 219. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using opiate withdrawal scale (OWS), psychic dependence was assessed by association test of Addiction Research Center Inventory-Chinese Version (ARCI-CV); the degrees of craving experienced for tramadol was self-reported on visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.05-1.07; 3 scores on scales in particular being used the identify euphoric effects--MBG, sedative effects--PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects--LSD of ARCI were 7.3, 6.1, and 3.4, respectively (F = 38.1, P < 0.01); 57.1% of tramadol abuse subjects had craving for tramadol (chi 2 = 75.86, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tramadol produced high abuse potential among opiate addicts.
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Rats like tramadol
The tramadol option
Tramadol and analgesia
Tramadol and acute pain
Tramadol versus morphine
Tramadol versus oxycodone
Official prescribing indications
Tramadol as an antidepressant
Tramadol: risk/benefit analysis
Methadone for tramadol addicts?
Tramadol, morphine and the stomach
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics
Tramadol, depression and Parkinson's disease

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