Brain mechanisms underlying
the placebo effect in neurological disorders

by
Cavanna A, Strigaro G, Monaco F.
Funct Neurol. 2007 Apr-Jun;22(2):89-94.


ABSTRACT

The potential of placebo treatments to alleviate a variety of medical conditions has long been recognised. Although the placebo effect is widely known, the physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. This review focuses on the existing evidence for placebo responses in different neurological conditions, including pain, Parkinson?s disease, depression, sleep and immune-mediated disorders. Special attention is paid to the neural changes associated with placebo treatments, as revealed by in vivo neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging studies. Converging evidence suggests that placebo analgesia is linked to the activation of the endogenous opioid analgesia network, whilst dopaminergic pathways seem to play a central role in the placebo effect in movement disorders and neuroimmunomodulation. Further research on the placebo response is needed, both to improve the efficacy of its application in clinical practice and to shed more light on the complexity of mind-body interactions.
Pain
NMDA
Morphine
Fentanyl
Alfentanil
Sufentanil
Remifentanil
Endomorphins
Placebo analgesia
Opioids and anaesthesia
Opioids, mood and cognition


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family