Population pharmacokinetics of piritramide in surgical patients
Bouillon T, Kietzmann D, Port R, Meineke I, Hoeft A.
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine,
University of Bonn, Germany.
Anesthesiology. 1999 Jan;90(1):7-15
ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Piritramide is a synthetic opioid used for postoperative analgesia in several European countries. The authors present a mixed-effects model of its population pharmacokinetics in patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: After institutional approval and informed patient consent was obtained, 29 patients who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II and aged 21-82 yr were enrolled in the study. They received 0.2 mg/kg piritramide as an intravenous bolus before anesthesia was induced. Central venous blood samples were drawn for as long as 48 h after administration of the drug. The plasma concentration of piritramide was determined by gas chromatography. The concentration-time data were analyzed by mixed-effects modeling. Target-controlled infusions and intermittent bolus regimens were simulated to identify a regimen suitable for patient-controlled analgesia based on population pharmacokinetics and published pharmacodynamic data. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of piritramide were described adequately by a linear three-compartment model. Patient age and weight were significant covariates. The values of the pharmacokinetic parameters are: V1 = 50.5 , V2 = 150 x (1 + 9.32 x 10(-3) x (age - 47 yr)) [l], V3 = 212 x (1 + 6.37 x 10(-3) x (age - 47 yr)) [l], Cl1 = 0.56 x (1 - 6.14 x 10(-3) x (age - 47 yr)) [l/min], Cl2 = 8.25 x (1 + 2.02 x 10(-2) x (Wt - 74 kg)) [l/min], Cl3 = 0.80 [l/min]. The age of 47 yr and the weight of 74 kg refer to the median values for these factors in the patients studied. Rapid distribution, slow distribution, and elimination half-lives for the median patient are 0.05, 1.34, and 10.43 h, respectively. The context-sensitive half-time after a 24-h infusion is predicted at 10.5 h in a 75-yr-old patient compared with 7 h for the median patient. CONCLUSIONS: Piritramide is distributed extensively and eliminated slowly. The pharmacokinetic profile of the drug allows for intermittent bolus administration even when constant effect compartment concentrations are desirable, e.g., for PLA.Piritramide
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