Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA):
effect of TRKA (NTRK1) missense mutations on autophosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase for nerve growth factor

Mardy S, Miura Y, Endo F, Matsuda I, Indo Y.
Department of Pediatrics,
Kumamoto University School of Medicine,
Honjo 1-1-1, Kumamoto 860-8556, Japan.
Hum Mol Genet. 2001 Feb 1; 10(3): 179-88


Human TRKA (NTRK1) encodes the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) for nerve growth factor (NGF) and is the gene responsible for congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of pain sensation and anhidrosis. We reported 11 putative missense mutations in 31 CIPA families from various ethnic groups. Here we have introduced the corresponding mutations into the TRKA cDNA and examined NGF-stimulated autophosphorylation. We find that wild-type TRKA precursor proteins in a neuronal and a non-neuronal cell line were differentially processed and phosphorylated in an NGF-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Two mutants (L93P and L213P) in the extracellular domain were aberrantly processed and showed diminished autophosphorylation in neuronal cells. Five mutants (G516R, G571R, R643W, R648C and G708S) in the tyrosine kinase domain were processed as wild-type TRKA but showed significantly diminished autophosphorylation in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In contrast, R85S and (H598Y; G607V), detected previously as double and triple mutations, are probably polymorphisms in a particular ethnic background. The other putative mutant D668Y might be a rare polymorphism or might impair the function of TRKA without compromising autophosphorylation. Mutated residues in the tyrosine kinase domain are conserved in various RTKs and probably contribute to critical function of these proteins. Thus, naturally occurring TRKA missense mutations with loss of function provide considerable insight into the structure-function relationship in the RTK family. Our data may aid in developing a drug which targets the clinically devastating 'complex regional pain syndrome'.
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