Marcus Aurelius
(AD 121 - 180)

image of Marcus Aurelius
Bust of the Stoic philosopher and illustrious opium-eater Emperor Marcus Aurelius (reigned AD 161 - 180). The Emperor ruled during "...the period in the history of the world, during which the condition of the human race was most happy and prosperous..." (Gibbon). Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations (AD 167). Meditations explains how the moral life leads to tranquillity. Marcus stresses the virtues of wisdom, justice, fortitude, and moderation. He recommended opium-eating for headache, dizziness, epilepsy, asthma, fever, leprosy and other ills of the flesh.

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