Presence of reticuline in rat brain:
a pathway for morphine biosynthesis

by
Zhu W, Ma Y, Cadet P, Yu D,
Bilfinger TV, Bianchi E, Stefano GB.
Neuroscience Research Institute,
State University of New York,
College at Old Westbury,
11568, Old Westbury, NY, USA
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Sep 10;117(1):83-90


ABSTRACT

We demonstrate the presence of reticuline, an isoquinoline alkaloid that was purified and identified in the rat brain. This was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. This material was finally identified by nano-electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of this tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid in rat brain is at 12.7+/-5.4 ng/g wet tissue. Furthermore, rat chow, rat small and large intestine and bacteria cultured from these tissues did not contain either morphine or reticuline, eliminating the possibility of contamination or an exogenous source of these compounds. This finding adds information which suggests that morphine biosynthesis may occur in rat neural tissues, and that its biosynthesis pathway may be similar to that reported in the poppy plant.
Mu3
fMRI
Morphine
Dependence
Zero tolerance?
Kadian v MS Contin
Morphine: structure
Morphine plus Viagra
Endogenous morphine?
Morphine and serotonin
Morphine-6-glucuronide
Morphine and magnesium
Is morphine a smart drug?
Opioids, mood and cognition
Is morphine an antidepressant?
Methadone, morphine and heroin
Morphine, pain and beta-endorphin
Tolerance, sensitization and dependence
Opioids, depression and learned helplessness
Morphine as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator
Endogenous morphine has signaling functions in Purkinje cells


morphine swan