Stefano GB, Goumon Y, Casares F, Cadet P,
Fricchione GL, Rialas C, Peter D, Sonetti D,
Guarna M, Welters ID, Bianchi E.
Neuroscience Research Institute,
State University of New York
at Old Westbury,
NY 11568, USA.
Trends Neurosci. 2000 Sep;23(9):436-42
ABSTRACTIt is now well accepted that endogenous morphine is present in animals, both in invertebrates and vertebrates. It is a key signaling molecule that plays an important role in downregulating physiological responses, such as those in the immune system, including immune elements in the CNS. It has been demonstrated that a specific mu-opiate-receptor subtype, mu3, mediates these downregulatory effects through release of NO. This article examines morphine as an endogenous signaling molecule, in terms of its role in neural and immune regulation.Mu3
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Morphine as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator
Endogenous morphine made by human neuroblastoma cells
Do rewarding drugs trigger endogenous morphine release?
and further reading
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World
The Good Drug Guide
The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family