Brain substrates of infant-mother attachment:
contributions of opioids, oxytocin, and norepinephrine

by
Nelson EE, Panksepp J.
Department of Psychology,
Indiana University,
Bloomington 47405, USA.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998 May; 22(3):437-52


ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is to review recent work concerning the psychobiological substrates of social bonding, focusing on the literature attributed to opioids, oxytocin and norepinephrine in rats. Existing evidence and thinking about the biological foundations of attachment in young mammalian species and the neurobiology of several other affiliative behaviors including maternal behavior, sexual behavior and social memory is reviewed. We postulate the existence of social motivation circuitry which is common to all mammals and consistent across development. Oxytocin, vasopressin, endogenous opioids and catecholamines appear to participate in a wide variety of affiliative behaviors and are likely to be important components in this circuitry. It is proposed that these same neurochemical and neuroanatomical patterns will emerge as key substrates in the neurobiology of infant attachments to their caregivers.
Pain
Morphine
Tramadol
Naloxone
Oxycodone
Carfentanil
Oxytocin.org
Endomorphins
Disruptive effects
Mu 1 and maternal behavior
Opioids and maternal behavior


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