Morphological studies of the endomorphinergic
neurons in the central nervous system

Wang QP, Zadina JE, Guan JL, Shioda S.
Department of Anatomy,
Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Jpn J Pharmacol 2002 Jul;89(3):209-15


Endomorphins (EMs) are newly found endogenous opioid peptides. Both endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and -2 (EM-2) are composed of four amino acids. Their high affinity and specificity for mu-opioid receptors have been confirmed by many physiological and pharmacological studies. In the present minireview, we discuss the distribution and localization of these peptides. While EM-2 is more prevalent in the spinal cord and lower brainstem, EM-1 is more widely and densely distributed throughout the brain than EM-2. We also discuss the possible coexistence of EM with other neurotransmitters. Finally, we introduce some new results regarding the ultrastructure and synaptic relationships of EM-2 obtained by the immunoelectron microscopic method.
Knockout mice
Endomorphins 1 and 2
Endomorphins and the mouse
The rewards of endomorphin 1
Endomorphins and the mu-opioid receptor
Endomorphins and related opioid peptides
Endomorphin 1, dopamine and nitric oxide
Rewarding and psychomotor stimulant effects of endomorphin 1
Endomorphin-1, accumbal dopamine and the mu-opioid receptor

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