Endomorphin-2 and Endomorphin-1 Promote the Extracellular Amount of Accumbal Dopamine via Nonopioid and Mu-Opioid Receptors, Respectively
by
Okutsu H, Watanabe S, Takahashi I, Aono Y, Saigusa T, Koshikawa N, Cools AR.
1Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Tokyo University of Science,
Noda-shi, Chiba, Japan.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Feb;31(2):375-83


ABSTRACT

Activation of mu-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to increase accumbal dopamine efflux in rats. Endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2); EM-2) and endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2); EM-1) are suggested to be the endogenous ligands for the mu-opioid receptor. As the ability of EM-2 and EM-1 to alter the accumbal extracellular dopamine level has not yet been studied in freely moving rats, the present study was performed, using a microdialysis technique that allows on-line monitoring of the extracellular dopamine with a temporal resolution of 5 min. A 25 min infusion of either EM-2 or EM-1 into the NAc (5, 25, and 50 nmol) produced a dose-dependent increase of the accumbal dopamine level. The EM-2 (50 nmol)- and EM-1 (25 and 50 nmol)-induced dopamine efflux were abolished by intra-accumbal perfusion of tetrodotoxin (2 muM). Intra-accumbal perfusion of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist CTOP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Phe-Thr-NH(2); 3 nmol) failed to affect the EM-2 (50 nmol)-induced dopamine release, whereas it significantly inhibited the EM-1 (25 and 50 nmol)-induced dopamine release. The EM-1 (50 nmol)-induced accumbal dopamine efflux was significantly reduced by the systemic administration of the putative mu1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), given 24 h before starting the perfusion). Systemic administration of the aspecific opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., given 10 or 20 min before starting the perfusion) also failed to affect the EM-2 (50 nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, whereas it significantly inhibited the EM-1 (25 and 50 nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present study shows that the intra-accumbal infusion of EM-2 and EM-1 increases accumbal dopamine efflux by mechanisms that fully differ. It is concluded that the effects of EM-2 are not mediated via opioid receptors in contrast to the effects of EM-1 that are mediated via mu1-opioid receptors in the NAc.
Analogs
Endomorphins 1 and 2
Endomorphins and the mouse
The rewards of endomorphin 1
Endomorphins and rodent brains
Adenylyl cyclase superactivation
The degradation of endomorphins
Endomorphin-1 loaded nanoparticles
Endomorphins 1 and 2 as antidepressants
Endomorphins and the mu-opioid receptor
Morphine: a mood-brightening smart-drug?
Opioids, depression and learned helplessness
Endomorphins to treat chronic inflammatory disease
A peripherally administered endomorphin-1 analogue offers pain relief
Biosynthesis of the mu-opioid receptor agonists endomorphins 1 and 2


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family