Morphine-induced in vivo release of spinal cholecystokinin
is mediated by delta-opioid receptors--effect of peripheral axotomy
Gustafsson H, Afrah AW, Stiller CO.
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,
Division of Pharmacological Pain Research,
Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
J Neurochem 2001 Jul; 78(1):55-63
Morphine and other opioid agonists induce spinal in vivo release of cholecystokinin (CCK), a neuropeptide with anti-opioid properties. However, so far the opioid receptor subtype responsible for this effect has not been determined. In the present in vivo microdialysis study, the morphine-induced release of cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity (CCK-LI) in the dorsal horn was completely blocked by the delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole (10 microM in the perfusion fluid). Neither the mu-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr amide (CTOP; 10 microM in the perfusion fluid), nor the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI); 10 microM in the perfusion fluid) had any significant effect in this respect. In addition, systemic administration of the delta-opioid receptor agonist BW373U86 (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and spinal administration of the delta(2)-opioid receptor agonist, Tyr-D-Ala-Phe-Glu-Val-Val-Gly amide ([D-Ala(2)] deltorphin II) (1 microM in the perfusion fluid) induced a significant increase of the CCK-LI level. The effect of BW373U86 on spinal CCK-LI release was completely blocked by spinal administration of naltrindole. The mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-ala(2)-N-Me-Phe(4)-Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (1 microM in the perfusion fluid or 1 mg/kg, s.c.) failed to alter the CCK-LI level. Peripheral nerve lesions have previously been shown to down-regulate mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn, to increase the gene-expression of CCK and CCK-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglion neurons and to alter the potassium-induced spinal CCK-LI release. After complete sciatic nerve transection, administration of the two selective delta-opioid receptor agonists induced a significant release of CCK-LI, which was comparable to controls. In contrast, neither systemic nor spinal administration of morphine and DAMGO altered the spinal CCK-LI release in axotomized animals. The present data indicate that the delta-opioid receptor mediates morphine-induced CCK-LI release in the spinal cord.
The delta connection
Cholecystokinin and chronic pain
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