Synergistic interactions between cannabinoid and opioid analgesics
by
Cichewicz DL.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology,
Virginia Commonwealth University,
PO Box 980524, 23298, Richmond, VA, USA
Life Sci. 2004 Jan 30;74(11):1317-24


ABSTRACT

Cannabinoids and opioids both produce analgesia through a G-protein-coupled mechanism that blocks the release of pain-propagating neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord. However, high doses of these drugs, which may be required to treat chronic, severe pain, are accompanied by undesirable side effects. Thus, a search for a better analgesic strategy led to the discovery that delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, enhances the potency of opioids such as morphine in animal models. In addition, studies have determined that the analgesic effect of THC is, at least in part, mediated through delta and kappa opioid receptors, indicating an intimate connection between cannabinoid and opioid signaling pathways in the modulation of pain perception. A host of behavioral and molecular experiments have been performed to elucidate the role of opioid receptors in cannabinoid-induced analgesia, and some of these findings are presented below. The aim of such studies is to develop a novel analgesic regimen using low dose combinations of cannabinoids and opioids to effectively treat acute and chronic pain, especially pain that may be resistant to opioids alone.
Mu
Pain
Opium timeline
Opioid receptors
NMDA anatagonists
Adjuvant analgesics
The Pleasures of Opium
Opioids and anaesthesia
Opioids, dopamine and alcohol
The molecular face of hedonism?
Interaction of the cannabinoid and opioid systems in pain relief


Refs
and further reading

HOME
HedWeb
Nootropics
erythroxylum-coca.com
Future Opioids
BLTC Research
MDMA/Ecstasy
Superhapiness?
Utopian Surgery?
The Abolitionist Project
The Hedonistic Imperative
The Reproductive Revolution
Critique of Huxley's Brave New World

The Good Drug Guide
The Good Drug Guide

The Responsible Parent's Guide
To Healthy Mood Boosters For All The Family